Israeli unmanned boats deliver firepower on the high seas

African states are increasingly confronted by maritime crime and insecurity. One way to address the security of a country’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) could be unmanned surface vessels, which are being developed at a rapid pace, including by Israeli companies.

To protect the natural resources in the EEZ, which stretch 200 nautical miles from a country’s coastline, countries need almost constant presence in the open seas. One option is unmanned surface vehicles (USVs).

Israel recently discovered huge reservoirs of natural gas in the Mediterranean and these are threatened by the Hezbollah terror organization in Lebanon. This threat accelerated the development of advanced USVs by some Israeli defence companies. Rafael was the first to develop such a system. The company’s Protector USV last year proved its capability to launch Spike ER missiles.

According to Rafael, this new capability allows pin-point attack of land or naval targets, enabling safe vessel operation from a remote-controlled vessel, with no risk to the operating force.

The Protector USV has been in use since 2004. Rafael has recently supplied a significant number of Protectors to a number of navies and civilian bodies around the world, in accordance with the growing need for a remotely-operated vessel with modular payload carrying capabilities.

The Protector can carry a variety of weapons and equipment, including a water cannon, electronic warfare systems for protection and escort of naval vessels, mine countermeasures equipment, the Toplite electro-optical long-range detection and tracking system, and Spike missiles – these can be launched in sea state 3 when waves are 0.5 to 1.5 meters high. It can also fit the Mini-Typhoon stabilized gun mount.

Rafael does not release data on clients, but a company source mentioned the situation in the Bab al-Mandab strait that separates the Arabian Peninsula from east Africa and that links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean. “The Houthis rebels in Yemen control the strait and have caused heavy damage to navy and civil ships mainly by launching missiles and rockets.”

Some Western navies operating in the troubled area are confronted by a growing threat as the rebels have expanded their presence into western Yemen around a vital maritime corridor that controls access to the Red Sea, a potential threat for some of the 8 per cent of global trade that runs through the Suez Canal. About 4 per cent of the global oil supply, much of it from Saudi Arabia and the other Gulf states, passes through the strait.

On July 29, 2017, pro-Houthi forces, referring themselves as the “Yemeni Navy,” released a statement taking responsibility for an attack, which they said occurred in the Red Sea off the coast of the port city of Mocha, Yemen.

According the Houthi-controlled SABA news agency, the next day, the insurgents killed 12 UAE personnel, wounded another 23, and damaged a nearby minesweeper at the same time. There was no information about the method of attack.

The Houthis attacks against navy and commercial ships are performed by Chinese made C-802 missiles and other weapons like anti-tank rockets launched from speed boats.

“In such an arena, the protector with the Spike ER missiles is the best solution for protecting such a vital connection between seas,” the Rafael official said.

Intelligence sources say that the Houthis have been building capabilities to perform “Swarm Attacks” using a number of high speed boats.

Rafael reached the conclusion that all the existing defence methods against such attacks are not effective. “We decided to use an unmanned vessel as the platform for such a protection system. The Protector was designed from the start as an unmanned platform and therefore is the ideal platform for such a mission.”

According to Rafael, the Protector has proved itself so far mainly in performing Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR).

Elbit systems, another Israeli major defence company has developed the Seagull USV. This is a 12-meter long vessel that can be operated from a mother-ship or from shore stations. It provides multi-mission capabilities including Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), Mine Counter Measures (MCM), Electronic Warfare (EW), maritime security and underwater commercial missions.

An Elbit systems source added that the Seagull provides mission endurance of more than four days and features C4I capabilities for enhanced situation awareness.

Last year the Seagull participated in MCM trials held by the Dutch and Belgian navies in the North Sea, and according to Elbit systems demonstrated superior performance in sea state 6, at winds exceeding 35 knots and 1.5 meter high waves.

In late 2017 the Seagull participated in a joint exercise between the Israeli Navy and the British Royal Navy in Haifa Bay.

During the exercise the USV performed a Mine Counter Measure (MCM) mission, scanning and charting a secure path for HMS Ocean, the Royal Navy helicopter carrier. Once encountering mine-like-objects, the Seagull alerted HMS Ocean to avoid them, thus securing its safe route. The Seagull performed the mission while being remotely operated from a Mission Control Station onshore. Additionally, the Seagull took part in a tactical manoeuvring exercise and sailed in formation with the Navy vessels.

Earlier this year the Seagull took part in a joint anti-submarine warfare exercise with the Israeli and French navies in the Mediterranean. An ASW force that included two Israeli ASW vessels, a frigate and an ASW helicopter of the Marine National and the Seagull, performed ASW missions against an Israeli Navy submarine.

Elbit said the Seagull offers navies a true force multiplier delivering enhanced performance to naval operations, reducing risk to human life and dramatically cutting procurement and operating costs.

And Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) has also joined the trend and developed the Katana USV that supports a wide range of applications for homeland security and protection of exclusive economic zones, including harbour security, patrol of shallow coastal and territorial waters, surface warfare and offshore platform protection.

An IAI source told defenceWeb that the system’s dual operational mode allows fully autonomous capabilities, controlled via an advanced command and control station, as well as a manned combat operational mode. “Based on a proven operational implementation of a USV system, Katana allows for execution of a wide variety of missions, including provision of an early-warning situational picture, classifying, identifying and tracking distant targets, and their eventual interception if required,” a company source said.

IAI’s says that the Katana’s features include autonomous navigation, collision avoidance, and an advanced control system. The vessel can be equipped with various payloads including electro-optical devices, line of site (LOS) and Non-line-of-site data link communication systems, advanced maritime radar system and different kinds of integrated weapon systems.

The IAI source said that the USV has completed sea trials and that there are negotiations with potential customers.

Meteor Aerospace, a new Israeli company has also understood the potential in USVs and developed the Orca. The Orca vessel is a 13 metres long, and weighs eight tons. According to Meteor Aerospace to enable manned operation of the Orca vessel at the flip of a switch, Orca has an advanced cabin for a crew of two – a navigator and a systems operator.

Powered by two diesel engines and a surface drive, Orca can achieve speeds of over 60 knots under favourable sailing conditions. Range is over 700 nautical miles. Orca also carries an independent diesel electrical generator and batteries, enabling it to keep station while operating its sensors and communications for many days, with its main engines shut down – conserving fuel.

The Orca can carry a wide range of mission systems, including a remote weapon station (RWS) on its bow, a stabilized observation system on a telescopic mast, maritime radar, and different types of data links.

The Israeli company says that the Orca has provision to deploy a sonar sensor at the stern. In addition, Orca is configured to carry and launch Meteor Aerospace’s long range strike missiles.


Carnival Corporation reduces its carbon footprint by 26.3%

Carnival Corporation released its eighth annual sustainability report, announcing that in 2017 the world’s largest leisure travel company achieved its 25 percent carbon reduction goal three years ahead of its 2020 sustainability projections. The company has reported that it achieved a 26.3% reduction in its carbon footprint as part of its goal to reduce the impact on the environment contained in its 2020 sustainability program.

It should be noted that the company shared its 2020 sustainability goals in 2015, identifying 10 objectives that include reducing its carbon footprint, improving the air emissions of ships, reducing of waste, improving the efficiency of water use and supporting the guests, crew and local communities.

In this way, the company’s latest sustainability report also shows that it is on track to reach those goals in its nine global cruise brands.

Carnival highlighted that 62% of the fleet is equipped with Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems (EGCS), capable of reducing sulfur compounds and particles in the engine exhaust of ships in any operational state of the ship; 43% of the fleet is equipped with the ability to use electric power on land while the ship is docked; increase in the coverage of the capacity of the entire fleet by 6.2 percentage points with respect to 2014.

In addition, Carnival Corporation achieved a reduction of non-recycled waste generated by onboard operations by 3.7% compared to the 2016 baseline, and sent 79% of US food and municipal waste to one facility that captured the energy from the waste; and improved water use efficiency in onboard operations by 4% over the 2010 baseline, at a rate of 60 gallons per person per day, versus the national average of 90 gallons per person per day.

“We recognize that to be a responsible global organization and good corporate citizen, we need to have sustainability ingrained in all aspects of our operation across our nine global cruise line brands and more than 100 ships,” said Bill Burke, chief maritime officer for Carnival Corporation, whose nine global cruise line brands include Carnival Cruise Line, Cunard, Holland America Line, Princess Cruises and Seabourn.

New security measures for the international shipping community

On 1 July 2004 the new maritime security regulatory regime set out in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974 as amended, namely the new chapter XI-2 on Special measures to enhance maritime security and the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code entered into force only 18 months after adoption by the SOLAS Conference in December 2002. Following the devastating terrorist acts of 11 September 2001 in the United States, the international community recognised the need to protect the international maritime transport sector against the threat of terrorism. IMO responded swiftly and firmly by developing these new requirements, which represent the culmination of co-operation between Governments, Government agencies, local administrations and shipping and port industries.

The new requirements form the international framework through which Governments, ships and port facilities can co-operate to detect and deter acts, which threaten security in the maritime transport sector. In order to determine what security measures are appropriate, Governments must assess the threat and evaluate the risk of a potential unlawful act. The ISPS Code provides a standardized, consistent framework for managing risk and permitting the meaningful exchange and evaluation of information between Contracting Governments, companies, port facilities, and ships. The requirements also include provisions, which establish the right of a State to impose control and compliance measures on ships in or intending to visit its ports. It also provides for Contracting Governments to take further action when relevant requirements are not met or when there are other clear grounds for taking such action. In addition, where a risk of attack has been identified, the coastal State concerned shall advise the ships concerned of the current security level; of any security measures that should be put in place by the ships concerned to protect themselves from attack; and of the security measures that the coastal State has decided to put in place.

The new requirements entered into force only recently and this paper also reports, notwithstanding the fact that Contracting Governments to the 1974 SOLAS Convention were obliged to give full and complete effect to the requirement by the aforesaid date, on the status of their implementation, so far, both by ships and port facilities. It further discusses the consequences for the shipping and port industry, including human element factors as well as the financial aspects involved, and for the economy of a country of the failure to comply.

The Maritime Cyber Threat

The 50,000 ships sailing the sea at any one time have joined an ever-expanding list of objects that can be hacked. Cybersecurity experts recently displayed how easy it was to break into a ship’s navigational equipment. This comes only a few years after researchers showed that they could fool the GPS of a superyacht into altering course. Once upon a time objects such as cars, toasters and tugboats only did what they were originally designed to do. Today the problem is that they all also talk to the internet.


The story so far

Stories about maritime cybersecurity are only going to proliferate. The maritime industry has been slow to realise that ships, just like everything else, are now part of cyberspace. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO), the UN body charged with regulating maritime space, has been late and somewhat slow in considering appropriate regulation when it comes to cybersecurity.

In 2014, the IMO consulted their membership on what maritime cybersecurity guidelines should look like. Two years later they issued their interim cybersecurity risk management guidelines, which are broad and not particularly maritime specific. And now, unsurprisingly, ships are being hacked.


Complexity of the maritime industry

There are several core issues that make cybersecurity for the maritime industry particularly challenging to address.

First, there are many different classes of vessel, all of which operate in very different environments. These vessels tend to have different computer systems built into them. Significantly, many of these systems are built to last over 30 years. In other words, many ships run outdated and unsupported operating systems, which are often the ones most prone to cyber-attacks.

Second, the users of these maritime computer systems are constantly in flux. Ship crews are highly dynamic, often changing at short notice. As a result, crew members are often using systems they are unfamiliar with, increasing the potential for cybersecurity incidents relating to human error. Further, the maintenance of onboard systems, including navigational ones, is often contracted to a variety of third parties. It is perfectly possible that a ship’s crew have little understanding of how onboard systems interact with each other.

A third complexity is the linkage between onboard and terrestrial systems. Many maritime companies stay in constant communication with their vessels. The cybersecurity of the ship is also dependent, then, on the cybersecurity of the land-based infrastructure that makes this possible. The implications of such dependencies were made clear in 2017 when a cyber-attack on the systems of A.P. Moller-Maersk resulted in cargo delays across their entire fleet. This is particularly challenging for the IMO who can govern the likes of port regulations, but have very little control over the wider systems and processes of maritime operators.


Steps in the right direction

In 2017, the IMO amended two of their general security management codes to explicitly include cybersecurity. The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS) and International Security Management Code (ISM) detail how port and ship operators should conduct risk management processes. Making cybersecurity an integral part of these processes should ensure that operators are at least conscious of cyber-risks.

Hopefully, this is the start of a more holistic approach to maritime cybersecurity regulation. The knowledge gained from these new cyber-risk assessments may enable the IMO to develop a broader set of cybersecurity regulations. There is a lot of low-hanging fruit to be picked, for example by harmonizing some equipment requirements with existing cybersecurity standards adopted by other sectors.


Turning the ship around

The maritime industry is undoubtedly behind other transportation sectors, such as aerospace, in cybersecurity terms. There also seems to be a lack of urgency to get the house in order. After all, the cyber-specific amendments to the ISM and ISPS don’t come into force until January 1 2021, and they only represent the beginning of a journey. So the maritime industry seems particularly ill-equipped to deal with future challenges, such as the cybersecurity of fully autonomous vessels.

On the positive side, the slow and steady approach to development of cybersecurity regulations at least provides the opportunity to learn from other sectors and fully understand maritime cybersecurity risks, rather than make hasty ill-informed decisions.

Development of robust maritime cybersecurity regulations is going to be a very slow, and possibly painful, process. But, the ship has started turning.